The agreement “provides more flexibility for Japanese and British companies” to transfer talent to each country, covering a number of British professionals for entry to Japan, from IT services to construction. This includes a commitment that visa requirements will be “clear, transparent and with the aim of being dealt with in 90 days.” Japan has expanded the scope of the ICT category and investor definitions have been modified to focus on investment as an activity and not on the amount of capital invested. Transfers from Japan to the UK are already subject to internal transfer rules, which will be improved in January as part of the delivery of the UK immigration system in 2021. The UK Youth Mobility Programme already covers Japan. Like its predecessor, the EPA between Japan and Great Britain contains no provision to settle disputes between investors and states. However, both parties have introduced a review clause for the Multilateral Investment Tribunal, which would trigger a review process as part of the Japan-UK agreement to assess its impact on the provisions of the agreement. With regard to remedial measures, the EPA between Japan and the United Kingdom has mainly embarked on a continuity approach, with the exception of the introduction of a “discretionary rule on tariff reduction” to reflect new legislation on trade assistance measures in the United Kingdom. Trade in services – Hong Kong service providers receive preferential treatment when entering the continental market in different service sectors. Hong Kong professional organizations and continental regulators have also signed a number of agreements or agreements for mutual recognition of professional qualifications. Two-way services trade was estimated at $6.2 billion in 2018/2019.
Education-related travel dominates Australian services exports to Indonesia. The EPA is a win-win agreement that opens up new business opportunities for the mainland, Hong Kong and all foreign investors. For Hong Kong, THE EPA offers Hong Kong businesses the opportunity to have better access to the mainland. The EPA also benefits the continent, as Hong Kong serves as the perfect “springboard” for continental companies to reach the global market and accelerate the continent`s full integration into the global economy. Foreign investors are also welcome to set up businesses in Hong Kong to take advantage of the benefits of the EPA and jointly seize the great opportunities offered by the continental market. The “Rules of Origin” chapter allows EU intermediate consumption for British and Japanese products to be considered “local” in either the UK or Japan in order to benefit from duty-free trade. This is an important outcome for companies whose supply chains cross the EU, Japan and the UK. Japan has also proposed to reduce paper requirements for access to preferential prices in relation to the EU-Japan agreement.
Australia offers considerable opportunities to develop its trade, investment and economic relations with Indonesia. A chapter on a national settlement in the trade agreement sets out the principles and disciplines to which both parties comply to ensure that measures relating to qualification requirements and procedures, technical standards and licensing requirements and procedures are not unnecessary barriers to trade in services. Japan and the United Kingdom have attempted to include in the Japan-UK agreement the most modern provisions from the ongoing World Trade Organization negotiations. The additional obligations of Japan and the United Kingdom should aim to enhance transparency and security if they are to implement the regulatory procedures necessary to access the Japanese or British market. The minimum duration of the company`s operations in Hong Kong is three years, but the requirement is